Joint criminal enterprise

<p>Joint criminal enterprise is a legal doctrine first articulated by the &nbsp;Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugolsiaviai (ICTY). The ICTY Appeals Chamber has held that participation in a joint criminal enterprise constitutes a mode of liability in the form of commission. Both the ECCC Pre-Trial and Trial Chambers have similarly found participation in a joint criminal enterprise to amount to commission within the scope of Article 29 (new) of the ECCC law the firts two categories of joint criminal enterprise, commonly refererred as JCE I and JCE II.</p><p>•<span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space: pre;"> </span>The basic category or JCE I, involving cases where all participants act pursuant to a common purpose and share the same criminal intene4;</p><p>•<span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space: pre;"> </span>The systemic category or JCE II, referring to instances of systemic ill-treatment in organized institutions, such as concentration camps; and</p><p>The following category of joint criminal enterprise has been rejected by the ECCC Pre-Trial and Trial Chamber, and the applicability of this extended form of joint criminal enterprise is currently the subject of an appeal from the Co-Prosecutors pending before the ECCC Supreme Court Chamber in Case 002/01:</p><p>•<span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space: pre;"> </span>The extended form or JCE III, entailing liability of the members of the group for acts that occur as a natural and foreseeable consequence of carrying out the common purpose of the group. To be found liable under this extended form of JCE, it must be shown than an Accused intended to participate in and further criminal activity of a group, and to contribute to its joint criminal enterprise. It must also be shown that it was foreseeable that a crime outside the scope of this agreement might be perpetrated by one or other members of the group and that the Accused willingly took the risk that this would occur.</p>