Case 002 Witnesses, experts and Civil Parties

Witnesses, experts and Civil Parties who have appeared in Case 002. Click on photo for larger version.

Mrs. HIN Sotheany

Ms. Hin Sotheany, the compiler of the list of prisoners at S-21, spent 24 months from April 2014 to March 2016. The list was prepared by her, an analytical consultant under the management of Hiroto Fujiwara, head of the analysis team.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 9 January 2017
NONG Nim

Nuon Trech was born in Trapeang Chuk Village in Steung Trong District, Kampong Cham Province.  He joined the army when he was 15. Oeun was his Division 310 commander and Voeung his deputy. He worked as a medic before 1975, although he never received any training. He worked at the district hospital at Chamkar Leu. In 1975, he was transferred to the Zone General Staff Hospital. When Phnom Penh was liberated, he was transferred to K-99, and then to a military hospital. He was responsible for treating wounded soldiers and people with malaria. He worked there for nearly one year and was then transferred to Battalion 314. He was arrested at this place, being accused of treason.

According to the witness’ recollection, Battallion 314 and other regiments were convened to a meeting at a school north of Wat Phom. They were told that their leaders were traitors and that they should remain calm. They heard over a loudspeaker a confession of Commander Oeun. Trech returned to his unit and leaders were arrested from time to time, alongside their wives. They were told that they were reassigned to other locations. He first thought that he himself was simply reassigned to another location and not arrested. He was sent to a cell, believed to be in Tuol Sleng, until Yeat took him out. He then went back to continue working as a medic.

Afterwards he was linked to the “enemy network” and transferred to Kampong Chhnang Airfield for re-fashioning.  As a prisoner, he was also told to burn explosives in the mountain and break stones to build the airport. Other prisoners working were badly injured and even killed by the explosives. They worked from 4am until 11am. They had a break for an hour and then worked from 12pm until 5pm. They worked every night from 6pm until 10pm. He never returned to Tuol Sleng after 1979.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 12 December 2016
2-TCW-823

He has four children and an adopted daughter.  He married his wife in 1976, and even though he had no previous love relationship with her he said it was a mutual agreement. Ta Mut presided his wedding. He joined the Khmer Rouge Revolution in 1970, initially on a village level, but then as sector-level in the Kampot forces. He was then transferred to the Southwest Zone Forces Division 3, sent to Phnom Penh to help liberate it and then was sent to Kampong Som alongside all Division 3, where he was the commander of the Battalion 560 from the Regiment 63. He had 300 men under his command, he had to organize ammunition and food to be transported to the islands of Koh Ses or Koh Thmei. He was told he was deployed there to protect their territory, as the islands were close to the border with Koh Tral, occupied by the Vietnamese. He said there were brief attacks by Vietnamese fishing boats with weapons, which fired first and then his Battalion responded. His boats never crossed into Vietnamese waters, as it was his understanding that Cambodia shouldn’t attack Vietnam. He said Regiment 63 was composed of three Battalions: Battalion 530, of which Vet was in charge, as for 540 it was Sary, and the witness was in charge of 560. He doesn’t know if Vet was Eung Vet. He attended meetings at the divisional headquarters where he spoke to either Ta Mut or Brother Dim. After Phnom Pen was liberated, he attended a study session at the Olympic where he saw Son Sen. Only Pol Pot spoke during the session, which lasted 4 days, and it was about the defence and construction of the country. He was transferred to Phnom Penh in 1978, and stayed there roughly 10 days until the Vietnamese came in, he was in charge of organizing the evacuation of the labor force. He met Khieu Samphan in Phnom Penh.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 12 December 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 13 December 2016
2-TCW-971

The witness was referred by pseudonym (2-TCW-971) during hearing as he was interviewed within investigative phase and was requested a protective measure by International Co-Investigating Judge. 

2-TCW-971 to testify on conflicting internal factions in the Northwest Zone in relation to the trial topic of internal purges. This witness is anonymous witness interviewed by Robert LEMKIN (2-TCW-877) and THET Sambath (2-TCW-855) for their film "Enemies of the People". According to Robert LEMKIN, the witness was a military commander in the capture of Phnom Penh in April 1975 and was later part of the official Northwest Zone administration under direct instruction of POL Pot. 

The Defense submits 2-TCW-971 was sent to work in the Northwest Zone and he can describe people's poor living conditions there. It submits that he can provide unique insight regarding the consequences of the policies and the party line. 

2-TCW-971

The witness was referred by pseudonym (2-TCW-971) during hearing as he was interviewed within investigative phase and was requested a protective measure by International Co-Investigating Judge. 

2-TCW-971 to testify on conflicting internal factions in the Northwest Zone in relation to the trial topic of internal purges. This witness is anonymous witness interviewed by Robert LEMKIN (2-TCW-877) and THET Sambath (2-TCW-855) for their film "Enemies of the People". According to Robert LEMKIN, the witness was a military commander in the capture of Phnom Penh in April 1975 and was later part of the official Northwest Zone administration under direct instruction of POL Pot. 

The Defense submits 2-TCW-971 was sent to work in the Northwest Zone and he can describe people's poor living conditions there. It submits that he can provide unique insight regarding the consequences of the policies and the party line. 

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 09 December 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 15 December 2016
2-TCW-920

Witnses 2-TCW-920 was with the Issarak movement during the 1950s and joined the Khmer Rouge around 1966. He was assigned to work for Ruos Nhim and Nuon Chea as a messenger between Phnom Penh and Battambang. Ruos Nhim appointed him to deliver messages to Nuon Chea. He confirmed that both leaders trusted him also during Democratic Kampuchea. He became a party member.

When asked about Ta Hoeun, he said he was removed by Ruos Nhim later on. Ruos Nhim mistrusted Ta Hoeun. He did not know where Ta Hoeun was sent to. He said also Ta Chham disappeared, and that in 1975 Ta Ngon died as he rose to a divisional commander.

When asked about Ruos Nhim arrest by the Southwest, he said it was “because Ruos Nhim joined hands with the yuon.”

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 6 December 2016
Mr. NUON Trech

Nuon Trech was born in Trapeang Chuk Village in Steung Trong District, Kampong Cham Province.  He joined the army when he was 15. Oeun was his Division 310 commander and Voeung his deputy. He worked as a medic before 1975, although he never received any training. He worked at the district hospital at Chamkar Leu. In 1975, he was transferred to the Zone General Staff Hospital. When Phnom Penh was liberated, he was transferred to K-99, and then to a military hospital. He was responsible for treating wounded soldiers and people with malaria. He worked there for nearly one year and was then transferred to Battalion 314. He was arrested at this place, being accused of treason.

According to the witness’ recollection, Battallion 314 and other regiments were convened to a meeting at a school north of Wat Phom. They were told that their leaders were traitors and that they should remain calm. They heard over a loudspeaker a confession of Commander Oeun. Trech returned to his unit and leaders were arrested from time to time, alongside their wives. They were told that they were reassigned to other locations. He first thought that he himself was simply reassigned to another location and not arrested. He was sent to a cell, believed to be in Tuol Sleng, until Yeat took him out. He then went back to continue working as a medic.

Afterwards he was linked to the “enemy network” and transferred to Kampong Chhnang Airfield for re-fashioning.  As a prisoner, he was also told to burn explosives in the mountain and break stones to build the airport. Other prisoners working were badly injured and even killed by the explosives. They worked from 4am until 11am. They had a break for an hour and then worked from 12pm until 5pm. They worked every night from 6pm until 10pm. He never returned to Tuol Sleng after 1979.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 5 December 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 6 December 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 7 December 2016
Mr. SIN Oeng

Sin Oeng was born on the 8th of March of 1957. He was part of a mobile unit from April 1975 until 1976, until he was taken to “a zone”, where he became a personal guard for Sao Phim. He was related to Sao Phim, as his deceased grandmother was Sao Phim’s cousin. He saw Chea Sim, who was the district officer of Ponhea Krek. The witness confirmed that Sao Phim’s daughter Sy, married to the son of the Northwest Zone committee, Ruos Nhim.  He heard that Pol Pot had tried to stage a coup d’état. He did not know who initiated the coup d’état, he only knew that the Center waged arrests against the East. He added that Sao Phim said to Heng Samrin that they would fight again. He said that they had talked about gathering forces and fighting Pol Pot, just ten days before Sao Phim died.  According to the witness, Sao Phim told Heng Samrin that he was going to Phnom Penh to speak to Pol Pot and “sort things out.” He was certain that he saw Nuon Chea at Suong, adding Nuon Chea slept there in the same building as Sao Phim’s bodyguards.

He was present in Sao Phim’s last trip to Phnom Penh. He recalls it was a convoy with Mr. Oeng and other eight people (including Sao Phim), that went to Wat Ounalom. Eventually, they were ambushed outside Akrey Ksatr and Oeng managed to escape by hiding in the lakes under the water raisins. He was captured and arrested in Vihear Suork. He was recognized and subsequently released and placed in a district office, where the head officer told him that Sao Phim was alive. He later fled the place and during the journey was informed of Sao Phim’s death. According to villagers, Sao Phim committed suicide but the witness never saw the body himself. The last time he saw Sao Phim alive had been in Akrey Ksatr where they were ambushed.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 1 December 2016
Mr. Seng Lytheng

The witness was born on 17 July 1946 in Kampong Thom province. He is Pol Pot’s nephew – his father is Pol Pot’s older brother. The witness said he was never a party member, but he was in the Vietnamese army in 1970 and again in 1973 for three years. He was mainly stationed in Kampong Thom and Siem Reap to protect Angkor Wat. He was later based in Kampong Cham, where the leaders there were Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary and Khieu Samphan. He confirmed that Pol Pot, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan ate and worked together on a daily basis. He was also part of a mobile unit and part of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in charge of receiving guests. He testified on the identities of several colleagues from that time. During this time he was married, but it was to a woman of his choice and they were the only couple married at that time. He worked as a guard for Pol Pot. He was trained in photography in China.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 29 November 2016
BEIT Boeurn (BIT Na), alias BIT Beuan

The witness was born in 1950 in Kandal province, and joined the revolution in 1971. She was assigned to various tasks before 1975 such as helping people grow rice and digging tree rots to produce medicine. Her unit arrived in Phnom Penh after the people had been evacuated. She was based at the stadium where she sewed clothes. In 1977 she was assigned to the Ministry of Commerce, in charge of purchasing. Her husband was arrested because he was a driver of Ta Hong; she never saw him again. She attended a study session where Pol Pot, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan spoke. They were encouraged to smash enemies, even if the enemies were their parents. She became pregnant but after her husband was arrested, she was forced to abort the baby. She was sent to Kampong Chhnang Airfield. Everyone there was very skinny and no children. She said they were fed poorly

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 02 November 2016
Ms. BEIT Boeurn
Mrs. THUCH Sithan

The witness was born on 2 January 1965 and currently resides in Paris. She worked in the Ministry of Social Affairs under Ieng Tirith. She distributed medicine because she could read French. When she worked at the ministry, several of her superiors under Ieng Tirith disappeared and did not come back. At meetings they were told they had to smash the enemy. The witness’s marriage took place in September 1976 at the Ministry. Three couples were married at the same time. Bong Sou acted as the parents during the ceremony. She did not know her husband well before they were instructed to get married. She asked to confirm that he was not married in France. She had to force herself to marry him because in fact she was in love with his secretary, who she knew better and thought was better looking. None of her family attended the marriage. She became pregnant within six months. Her husband disappeared three months later. She saw Nuon Chea speak at a meeting, and met with Khieu Samphan.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 21 November 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 22 November 2016
2-TCW-913

The witness was a monk until 17 April 1975, when all 19 monks in his pagoda were forcibly defrocked. He was transferred to a rice cooperative for a few months. He was part of the group referred to as “Monkey Forces” because they were newcomers. He was transferred to another cooperative, where he tasted food for guests to make sure it wasn’t poisoned. Later he was moved to the East Zone. There, he stated, he was overworked and not given enough food, so some people tried to find food in the forest. After this they were all rounded up and arrested for 14 days, during which time they were fed just one or two piece of potato per meal. They were then taken away to be killed. The witness was hit several times over the head but managed to survive, as did one other named Khan. They untied each other and managed to live for over a month in a cave near their worksite which had been abandoned. The witness had to drink his own urine to survive.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 10 November 2016
2-TCW-1065

The witness joined the revolution as a soldier in 1970 because the late King Sihanouk told his people to do so. In 1971 he attended medical training and became a medic on the district level, becoming chief of the hospital in 1976. In late 1977 all the commanders in his division – the witness included – were called to a meeting, which he did not attend because he was stationed on the battlefront. Everyone at the meeting was later arrested. After this the witness realized Pol Pot committed treason, because he sent in troops to arrest these commanders. He began organizing resistance against Pol Pot, coordinating with Vietnam to do so. He felt he was forced to hide in the jungle because Pol Pot was killing people at random. According to the witness, the Cambodian-Vietnamese conflict originally started in 1973 because the superpowers supporting each country were not sending equal amounts of materials. He testified that there were strategy meetings held in Ho Chi Minh City prior to the invasion. The witness was related to Sao Phim and told him about Pol Pot’s treasonous actions. After the latter’s overthrow the witness was placed in a prison by the Vietnamese. The witness testified on a variety of names and topics relating to the Vietnamese intervention in Cambodia and internal purges.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 1 November 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 2 November 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 7 November 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 8 November 2016
2-TCW-1046

Ieng Phan was born in 1952 in Takeo province. He was promoted through the ranks of the army up to the  position of regiment commander. He was part of the attack on Phnom Penh in 1975. His division attacked the Vietnamese at the border in 1977, when the fighting was still sporadic. He recalls the Vietnamese troops entering Takeo, very far from the border. The Cambodian side experienced more casualties because the Vietnamese were better armed and larger in numbers. So they often tried to hit the Vietnamese from behind because in a head-on fight they would have lost – therefore according to the witness they were only trying to
defend their territory. Their orders from up top were to do just that.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 1 November 2016, [Corrected] Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 31 October 2016
Mr. SOV Maing

Sao Maing was born in 1951 in Mondulkiri province. He was a Khmer Rouge soldier between 1975-79. He was married to his wife who he knew before and loved. He described border clashes that occurred between the Cambodians and Vietnamese around 1976, and intensified in 1977- 78. He said there was no fighting inside
Vietnamese territory, only when they came into Cambodia.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 27 October 2016
2-TCW-859

He was promoted to regiment leader three months after the fall of Phnom Penh. He was in charge of troops defending the city.

He stated that he was allowed to employ his own strategies to defend without communicating with the others, because it was Cambodian territory. He said the KR did not have a policy to attack the Vietnamese but because the latter attacked, they had to attack them. He married without being forced – he loved his wife, who was an ordinary citizen, and asked his unit chief to marry her. His parents were not present. He said if people did not like each other then they did not have to marry. He had never encountered people being monitored to enure they consummated a marriage. He repeatedly said that Cambodian troops who engaged in combat with Vietnamese troops were simply defending their country.

[Corrected 2] Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 25 October 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 26 October 2016
2-TCW-1037

2-TCW-1037 was living in the forest until​ 1975 because of the chaos faced by the country. He remained in the revolution until 1975.

Between 1970 and 1975 he joined the army to liberate the nation. After that, he was in charge of economics and logistics in a zone, especially distribution of food and ammunitions
to the battlefield. He remembered and confirmed the existence of many people, cadres and locations names. The leaders in the Military Zone were accused of having connections with CIA. He heard that Ruos
Nhim and Ta Nhim planned to attack Pol Pot. They were killed with all participants for that. During this period he confirmed their transfer to other places with more difficult living conditions. He spoke about high-level cadres who were sent to Phnom Penh. It was a part of the general policy of purges. Those who were linked to the Military Zone were accused of being traitors. He said that people monitored each other under Democratic Kampuchea. He spoke about the purges policy against the Vietnamese and explained that measures against them were harder than those against Cham. Cham people mostly survived if they obeyed, but Vietnamese
were killed most of the time. Finally he spoke about the marriages. He explained that some were forced to get married and​ others could marry the one they wanted. He was arranged to get married on 31 December 1975 with thirty others couples. 

After the ceremony, they were all dispersed to various locations – it was a rule that
wife and husband stayed together during three days, to consummate their weddings after that they were separated and sent to different worksites. If they wanted to see each other they needed permission.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 17 October 2016
Mr. CHEAL Choeun

Cheal Choeun was born in 1952 in Pursat village. He is a rice farmer.

He was a Khmer Rouge soldier until 1975. After that he went to Battambang because of the bad living conditions. He testified on the massacre of Lon Nol soldiers, persecution of Buddhists and forced marriage. He gave some leaders’ names and affirmed that he heard about Ruos Nhim. He never heard anything about rebellion project, just about military training without knowing about its purpose. He accompanied former Lon Nol soldiers to Samdech immediately after the victory of Khmer Rouge in Phnom Penh. The witness stated that 50 Lon Nol soldiers were transported. He never knew what happened to their bodies after he seen their death by shot. He was asked to fire the gun but he was too shaken. Before this period, he was studying to become a monk but in 1975 he left the monkhood.

The Khmer Rouge instructed them to work in the rice fields and plant cotton. He was married during that time under the order of his direct supervisor Pheap.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 13 October 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 17 October 2016
2-TCW-1036

2-TCW-1036 joined the Revolution in 1972. He began as a messenger, then he was transferred and  imprisoned in 1977.

He was messenger for Ruos Nhim, but was not in his closest circle – he only accompanied him to distant places. The witness heard that Ruos Nhim was arrested at the end of 1978. He remembered vaguely that he accompanied him to the Vietnamese border in 1977, and mentioned a truck
with uniforms there. He didn’t see any Vietnamese there but apparently they collected uniforms from Vietnam. They often changed their locations.

He couldn’t remember many things or gave different statements than previous ones. According to him, under the KR “there were no problems.”

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 21 September 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 22 September 2016
Mr. SEM Om

Sem Om joined the Revolution in 1973 in the Division 1 and Battalion 502.

First he was in charge of the economic affairs, delivering rice to soldiers. After when he was at the Vietnamese border he was in charge of the radio communication system. He heard on the radio the order given to leave and go to protect their family. He learned that Comrad Oeun planned to agitate people. They stocked equipment and arranged uniforms to topple Pol Pot. Oeun was arrested like many others chiefs and cadres. They were in a constant fear at this time. He heard some Khmer voices spoke about joining the Vietnamese side to topple Pol Pot. Also he stated that soldiers from the East Zone were arrested and killed, their wives too. When he worked as a messenger for Him Horn he heard about a plan to topple Pol Pot. Horn was accused of being a traitor and committed suicide. He stated that there was a special unit in charge of purging.

He spoke about marriages and explained that cadres and disabled people were the only ones to get married. Marriage for combatants was prohibited. The main aim of those marriage was to produce children for Angkar.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 20 September 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 21 September 2016
Mr. NOEM Oem

Noem Oem alias Nhim Kim Sreang was born in 1953. He was the chief of the photography unit at S-21. He  stated that spent time in prison for getting caught in a fight. According to the witness, he personally took between 4000-5000 photographs. He stated that Nhem En had no special skill in photography, contrary to 
the latter’s statement. Mr. Sreang’s main role was tot ake photos and develop the film. He said there was no set system for organizing the photos of prisoners. This changed in 1978 at request of Duch but it still wasn’t a regular system. He did not see many children.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 16 September 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 15 September 2016
NOP Ngim

Nop Ngim was a trusted Khmer Rouge cadre who was sent from the Southwest to the Northwest zone in 1978 by Ta Mok. There, Ta Mok appointed her to a powerful position, Deputy Secretary of Samlaut District, but still she was forced by Mok, a member of the Standing Committee, to marry a handicapped soldier. Nop Ngim testified that there were 38 couples that forced to marry in the same ceremony. 

Nop Ngim never testified that she had been explicitly warned of the consequences of refusal. But in a regime where breaking a spoon, failing to follow instructions, or criticizing conditions could lead to execution, even a relatively high-ranking cadre dared not refuse, believing her survival depended upon accepting the regime's decision. 

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 05 September 2016
PHAN Him

Ms. PHAN Him didn’t remember her date of birth, but she is 60 years old. She was born in Bakrong village in Kampong Cham province, she married Kung Choeun and had six children. 

In 1975 she was in the medical unit, carrying soldiers off the battlefield. In May 1975, she worked in a warehouse and after that she worked in logistics support. In 1976 she became a teacher and was located in Tompong. She began to teach to children between 3 and 12 years old. She was told to teach them to be on time, to be vigilant about enemies and the discipline of Angkar. The children’s parents didn’t come to visit them because Angkar was their parents. In  1977 she was in charge of exporting goods overseas. One day, the female chief of her section came to say her that someone had proposed to marry her. She responded that she was too young and she wanted to work and her chief responded she must respect Angkar. She learned that her husband made the proposal because he had to get marry and he had heard her name once. She was married in 1978. She was authorized to rest the day before her weddings, and they gave her clothes and some staff to clean herself. There were twenty one couples for the same ceremony.

This was arranged by their respective unit chiefs, they couldn’t choose their partner, only the men could propose an engagement. They didn’t receive any instructions after the wedding, they didn’t consume their marriage before two weeks to a month. They began to talk together and finally started to have sexual relations. They had children together.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 31 August 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 01 September 2016
2-TCW-850

This witness has been interviewed during the investigation stages of other cases and international co-investigating judge requested the TC to refer him by speudonym (2-TCW-850) not his full name.

The Witness was in a connnune militia unit in Kandal Stung District from 1975-76 and a Member of the S'ang District Committee (Southwest Zone) from 1976-77.

He was sent to the Central Zone in 1977 as part of the purge of that Zone by Southwest forces, and appointed Baray District Secretary. He describes district committee meetings, the submission of reports to the sector level and the receipt of instructions from the upper echelon.

He also provides evidence regarding the 1st January Dam and Wat Baray Choan Dek security office. 

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 22 August 2016

Pagination